Integration in the Nile Basin: Nile for Peace Initiative

Introduction:

The Nile basin is one of the largest international river systems in the world. This river system is composed of two major tributaries: the White Nile and the Blue Nile which originate from Lake Victoria (Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) and the Lake of Tana (Ethiopia) respectively. These two major tributaries converge at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, to form the Main Nile which continues on to Egypt. The Blue Nile is the largest tributary in terms of contribution to the inflow of the water in the river (86%) and the White Nile share is only 14%. The Nile waters present both opportunities and challenges to the riparian countries.

With an area of 3.1 million km2, the Nile Basin covers about 10% of Africa and 2.3% of the world’s land surface. The Nile River is the longest river in the world. It flows6 6,700 km from its source in the Equatorial Lake basin to the Mediterranean Sea, north of Cairo, Egypt. Although the upstream rainfall is 2000 billion cubic meters yearly, 7% of this immense quantity flows to the downstream countries.

In view of this, the study tries to analyze the historical, geo-political and legal aspects of the Basin. The socio-economic factors that contribute to the dispute among riparian countries will also be examined from both upstream and downstream countries perspectives. Finally, the study will address the best ways to achieve solidarity among the riparian countries in the light of the “Nile for Peace” initiative that reflects the role of civil society and public figures, among others, in supporting the peaceful solutions and resilience in the Nile basin.

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